About Childhood Cancer

What is childhood cancer?

Childhood cancer is not simply adult cancer in a child. Cancers in children are often different in their causes, the way they grow and spread, and how they respond to treatment.

When a child is diagnosed with cancer, there is usually no known cause. This makes it very hard for parents who are left with unanswered questions about why their child has cancer, and if there was anything they could have done to prevent it.

The challenge of childhood cancer

Childhood cancer poses two major challenges. The first challenge is improving survival. While the overall survival rate for childhood cancer is now over 80%, for some types of cancer the rate is much lower. In fact, there are still some childhood cancers that are uniformly fatal.

The second challenge is improving quality of life in survivors. Many people are surprised to learn that almost all cancer treatments used in children today were actually developed for adults. Most of these treatments target all rapidly growing cells (not just cancer cells) and this leads to harsh side-effects, especially in young, growing bodies.

Two thirds of survivors of childhood cancer suffer significant long-term health problems as a result of their treatment. These problems include organ dysfunction, neurocognitive deficits, impaired fertility, and secondary cancers. The need for more effective and safer treatments for children is urgent

Which cancers do children get?

Some of the most common childhood cancers are:

Brain Cancers

This is cancer that grows in the brain and is the second most common childhood cancer. It kills more children that any other type of cancer. 


This is cancer of the blood and bone marrow, and is the most common childhood cancer.


The most common solid tumour diagnosed in children under five. 


A cancer that grows in the bones and connective tissues of the body.


A cancer that develops in the lymphatic system.

Key Facts

  • Worldwide, about 300,000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year in children and adolescents.
  • In Australia, more than 1000 children and adolescents are diagnosed with cancer each year.
  • When a child dies from cancer, an average 70 potential years of life are lost.
  • Cancer kills more children than any other disease in Australia.
  • About three children and adolescents per week die from cancer in Australia.
  • Two-thirds of children who survive cancer suffer serious long-term effects.
  • The overall survival rate for childhood cancer has now risen to over 80%, thanks to medical research.


Cancer Australia: https://childrenscancer.canceraustralia.gov.au/about-childrens-cancer/statistics 

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/cancer/cancer-data-in-australia 

Australian Childhood Cancer Registry: https://cancerqld.blob.core.windows.net/content/docs/Childhood-Cancer-in-Australia-1983-2015.pdf 

Medical Journal of Australia 2020; 212: 110-111 

Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2001; 93: 341 

Lancet Oncol 2017; 18: 719–31 

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